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South African Journal of Botany
Volume 147, 2022, Pages 35-41

Bioassay-guided fractionation of Calamintha baborensis Batt. herbal extracts reveals disaccharide glucuronide as a potent antistaphylococcal compound

Ibtissem Aribia,b, Smain Chemata

Extraction & Separation Techniques Team, Research Centre in Chemical & Physical Analysis (CRAPC), BP 348 ZI de Bousmail, Tipaza, CP 42004, Algeria.

Abstract

Calamintha species are frequently used in traditional medicine in Algeria as a stimulant, a tonic, an antiseptic, but also to treat digestive disorders and intestinal infections that cause diarrhea as well as pneumonia. Bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation of highly effective antistaphylococcal molecules from the aerial parts of Calamintha baborensis Batt., that could be responsible for the aforementioned activity. This is achieved using silica gel column chromatography, followed by semi-preparative HPLC in order to isolate active compound(s) against methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus strain (Rosenbach ATCC6538). The hexane extract has exhibited the highest antibacterial activity compared to little activity in the water extract, whereas moderate effects are recorded for acetone and ethanolic extracts. Fractionation of the hexane extract by column chromatography coupled to bioassay-guided purification revealed the presence of a bactericidal agent against Staphylococcus aureus with a minimum inhibition concentration (MIC50) of 12.4 μg.mL-1. LC-MS/MS studies suggest that the isolated compound is a disaccharide glucuronide identified as phenyl-β-D-glucuronide rhamnoside with M = 562 g.mol-1, which is reported for the first time in Calamintha species. The predicted enzymatic inhibition potential explains in part the mode of action of the isolated compound in bacterial growth inhibition.

Keywords: Calamintha baborensis Batt., Bioassay-guided HPLC, Antimicrobial, Staphylococcus aureus, Infection.

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