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Volume 136, 2021, 110362

The antimicrobial effect of grapefruit peel essential oil and its nanoemulsion on fish spoilage bacteria and food-borne pathogens

Yesim Özogula, Fatih Özogula, Piotr Kulawikb

Department of Seafood Processing Technology, Faculty of Fisheries, Cukurova University, 01330, Adana, Turkey.


In the study, improvement in antibacterial properties of grapefruit peel essential oil after the nanoemulsification process was investigated. The essential oil composition was characterized using GC-MS, with d-Limonene being the main identified compound (82.86%). The antibacterial properties against common food-borne pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumoniaand Salmonella Paratyphi A) as well as 6 fish-spoilage bacteria isolated from 4 spoiled fish species: mackerel, sardine, anchovy and rainbow trout, have been evaluated using paper disc diffusion, MIC and MBC methods. The grapefruit peel essential oil showed bacteriostatic properties against the majority of tested bacterial strains, however, only the growth of Salmonella parathypi A, Vibrio vulnificus and Seratialique faciens was inhibited by the essential oil in the concentration up to 25 mg/mL. Incorporation of essential oil into the nanoemulsion system resulted in increased bacteriostatic potency when the oil concentration in the nanoemulsion were considered, however, no bactericidal effect was observed, which was probably due to too low concentration of essential oil in the nanoemulsion system. The improvement in the nanoemulsion preparation method and formulation should be investigated to further improve its antibacterial properties.

Keywords Grapefruit peel, Nanoemulsion, Essential oil, Food-borne pathogens, Fish spoilage bacteria, Antimicrobial.

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