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Vol. 152, No. xx, 2006; Pages: 43–58

Regulatory roles of psrA and rpoS in phenazine-1-carboxamide synthesis by Pseudomonas chlororaphis PCL1391

Genevieve Girard, E. Tjeerd van Rij, Ben J. J. Lugtenberg and Guido V. Bloemberg

Leiden University, Institute of Biology (IBL), Clusius Laboratory, Wassenaarseweg 64, 2333AL
Leiden, the Netherlands.


Production of the secondary metabolite phenazine-1-carboxamide (PCN) by Pseudomonas chlororaphis PCL1391 is crucial for biocontrol activity against the phytopathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis lycopersici on tomato. Regulation of PCN production involves the two-component signalling system GacS/GacA, the quorum-sensing system PhzI/PhzR and the regulator PsrA. This paper reports that a functional rpoS is required for optimal PCN and N-hexanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (C6-HSL) production. Constitutive expression of rpoS is able to complement partially the defect of a psrA mutant for PCN and N-acylhomoserine lactone production. Western blotting shows that rpoS is regulated by gacS. Altogether, these results suggest the existence of a cascade consisting of gacS/gacA upstream of psrA and rpoS, which influence expression of phzI/phzR. Overproduction of phzR complements the effects on PCN and C6-HSL production of all mutations tested in the regulatory cascade, which shows that a functional quorum-sensing system is essential and sufficient for PCN synthesis. In addition, the relative amounts of PCN, phenazine-1-carboxylic acid and C6-HSL produced by rpoS and psrA mutants harbouring a constitutively expressed phzR indicate an even more complex network of interactions, probably involving other genes. Preliminary microarray analyses of the transcriptomics of the rpoS and psrA mutants support the model of regulation described in this study and allow identification of new genes that might be involved in secondary metabolism.

Keywords:metabolitephenazine-1-carboxamide,Pseudomonas chlororaphis PCL1391,N-hexanoyl-L-homoserine lactone,Pseudomonas aureofaciens,Pseudomonas fluorescens CHAO,pathogens.

Corresponding author:

E-mail: bloemberg@rulbim.leidenuniv.nl

Department of Zoology, Life Science Building, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai - 600 025. Tamil Nadu, India. Phone:91-44-22300899, Fax : 044-22300899; Email: dzum@envis.nic.in; enviscoordinator@gmail.com
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