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TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry
Volume 143, 2021, 116415

Raman biosensor and molecular tools for integrated monitoring of pathogens and antimicrobial resistance in wastewater

Li Cuia, Hong-Zhe Lia,b, Kai Yanga, Long-Ji Zhua, Fei Xua,b, Yong-Guan Zhua,c

Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Fujian Key Laboratory of Watershed Ecology, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen, 361021, China.


Pathogens and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) are emerging as major global threats to public health. Wastewater, as the unique interface between environments and humans receiving and spreading pathogens and AMR, is playing a more important role than ever before for monitoring of public health. Here, by pinpointing pathogens and AMR, we reviewed the most recent technological advancements in Raman biosensors (single-cell Raman, Raman-stable isotope probing, surface-enhanced Raman, statistical analysis) and molecular methods (polymerase chain reaction, metagenomics and single-cell genomics) for phenotypic and genotypic surveillance, respectively. In particular, the importance of integrating phenotypic and genotypic analysis via targeted single-cell sorting for a complementary and holistic surveillance and understanding of health risk was highlighted. We further suggest technological requirements to enhance wastewater surveillance and better inform tackling strategy against pathogens and AMR.

Keywords: Pathogens, Antimicrobial resistance, Phenotype and genotype, Raman biosensor, PCR, Metagenomic and single-cell genomic sequencing, Stable isotope probing.

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