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Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
2021

Pooled microbiological findings and efficacy outcomes by pathogen in adults with community-acquired bacterial pneumonia from the Lefamulin Evaluation Against Pneumonia (LEAP) 1 and LEAP 2 phase 3 trials of lefamulin versus moxifloxacin

Susanne Pauknera, Lisa Goldbergb, Elizabeth Alexanderb, Anita F. Dasc, Stefanie Heinrichd, Pritty Patele, Gregory J. Moranf, Christian Sandrockg, Thomas M. File Jrh, Jorge E. Vidall, Ken B. Waitesj, Steven P. Geloneb, Jennifer Schranzb

Nabriva Therapeutics GmbH, Vienna, Austria.

Abstract

Objectives

Lefamulin, a pleuromutilin antibiotic approved for community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP), was evaluated for microbiological efficacy in a prespecified pooled analysis of LEAP 1 and 2 phase 3 clinical trial data in patients with CABP.

Methods

In LEAP 1, adults (PORT risk class III‒V) received intravenous (IV) lefamulin 150 mg every 12 h (q12h) for 5‒7 days or moxifloxacin 400 mg every 24 h (q24h) for 7 days, with optional IV-to-oral switch. In LEAP 2, adults (PORT II‒IV) received oral lefamulin 600 mg q12h for 5 days or moxifloxacin 400 mg q24h for 7 days. Primary outcomes were early clinical response (ECR) at 96 ± 24 h after treatment start and investigator assessment of clinical response (IACR) 5‒10 days after the last dose. Secondary outcomes included ECR and IACR in patients with a baseline CABP pathogen (detected via culture, urinary antigen testing, serology and/or real-time PCR).

Results

Baseline CABP pathogens were detected in 709/1289 patients (55.0%; microbiological intention-to-treat population). The most frequently identified pathogens were Streptococcus pneumoniae (61.9% of patients) and Haemophilus influenzae (29.9%); 25.1% had atypical pathogens and 33.1% had polymicrobial infections. Pathogens were identified most frequently by PCR from sputum, followed by culture from respiratory specimens. In patients with baseline CABP pathogens, ECR rates were 89.3% (lefamulin) and 93.0% (moxifloxacin); IACR success rates were 83.2% and 86.7%, respectively. Results were consistent across CABP pathogens, including drug-resistant isolates and polymicrobial infections.

Conclusion

Lefamulin is a valuable IV and oral monotherapy option for empirical and directed CABP treatment in adults.

Keywords: Lefamulin, Moxifloxacin, Microbiology, Community-acquired bacterial pneumonia, CABP, Efficacy.

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