Pattern recognition receptors acting in innate immune system of shrimp against pathogen infections
Xian-Wei Wang, Jin-Xing Wang
The Key Laboratory of Plant Cell Engineering and Germplasm Innovation of Ministry of Education, School of Life Sciences, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250100, China.
Invertebrates, including shrimp, have developed very complicated innate immune system against pathogens. Much work has been performed on the innate immunity of shrimp, including immune recognition, signal transduction, effector molecules and antiviral responses due to its great economic value. Pattern recognition is the first step of innate immunity. Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) sense the presence of infection and activate immune responses. The studies on shrimp PRRs revealed the recognition mechanism of shrimp at a certain degree. To date, 11 types of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) have been identified in shrimp, namely, β-1,3-glucanase-related proteins, β-1,3-glucan-binding proteins, C-type lectins, scavenger receptors, galectins, fibrinogen-related proteins, thioester-containing protein, Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule, serine protease homologs, trans-activation response RNA-binding protein and Toll like receptors. A number of PRRs have been functionally studied and have been found to have different binding specificities and immune functions. The present review aims to summarize the current knowledge on the PRRs of shrimp.