The present study was designed to evaluate the occurrence of periodontal pathogens in the subgingival biofilm of 100 native Brazilians living at Umutina Indian Reservation, Mato Grosso State, Brazil.
Periodontal clinical examinations were carried out prior to subgingival biofilm collection, and the presence of 14 periodontal microorganisms was evaluated by PCR. Prevalence and risk analysis were performed using Cochran and Mantel-Haenszel statistics for dichotomous variables or Pearson's Chi-Square test for analysis of proportions when variables had 3 or more categories. Interrelations between clinical and microbiological parameters were assessed by Fisher and Mann-Whitney‘s exact test.
Individuals with chronic periodontitis were frequently colonized by the association between P. gingivalis and C. rectus, P. gingivalis and P. intermedia or P. gingivalis and T. forsythia. Patients with chronic periodontitis were also colonized by P. gulae and P. intermedia or by the association between P. gulae and T. forsythia. P. gulae was just detected in subgingival samples from natives with traditional diet. Gingival bleeding was associated with A. actinomycetemcomitans, F. nucleatum, T. forsythia, P. gingivalis, P. gulae, P. endodontalis, P. intermedia and P. nigrescens. T. denticola was uncommon.
It was demonstrated peculiar microbiota associated with different periodontal disease status in native Brazilians, with modest occurrence of certain pathogens, such as T. denticola, and the presence of P. gulae in natives with gingivitis or chronic periodontitis.