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Basic and Applied Aspects of Biotechnology
2016, Pages: 125-150

Genome Sequencing

Varsha Gupta, Manjistha Sengupta, Jaya Prakash, Baishnab Charan Tripathy

Institute of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Chhatrapati Shahu Ji Maharaj University, Kanpur, UP, India.


There is large unexplored world inside us which is complicated and interesting. Just a half-century ago, very little was known about the genetic factors that contribute to human diseases. In 1953, James Watson and Francis Crick described the double helix structure of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), the chemical compound that contains the genetic instructions for building, running, and maintaining living organisms. Methods to determine the order, or sequence, of the chemical letters in DNA were developed in the mid-1970s along with the advancement in technology of microscopy, molecular biology, and genetic engineering, because of which it was becoming possible to conduct a serious and systemic exploration of our internal world.

Each cell present in the body has two near identical chromosomes sets. The DNA is packaged in a tight but sophisticated manner in these chromosomes. Deciphering the order of every DNA base on each chromosome in a genome is genome sequence. A genome map identifies the landmarks, which help in navigating around the genome. In this chapter, the readers would understand the principles of human genome project, genome projects of model organisms, genomics of pathogens, and evolution of influenza, hepatitis B, and HIV genome.


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