Distribution of airborne Mycosphaerella graminicola inoculum at the field scale.
Duvivier M, Dedeurwaerder G, Marchal G, Renard ME, Van Hese V, Moreau JM, Legreve A.
Plant Protection and Ecotoxicology Unit, Centre Wallon de Recherches Agronomiques, 11 rue du Bordia, BE-5030 Gembloux, Belgium.
A network of 10 Burkard 7-day spore-recording traps was set up in the Walloon region in Belgium to monitor the airborne inoculum of wheat pathogens. Three spore traps were used to analyse the distribution of Mycosphaerella graminicola inoculum at the field scale, at 1 m above ground level. Two traps were set up in a wheat field 100 m apart. The third trap was placed 70 m away in a sugar beet field adjacent to the wheat field. Total DNA from each fragment of spore trap tape corresponding to 1 day sampling was extracted and the quantity of M. graminicola was assessed using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. The experiment was conducted from July to October 2009. Positive detections were obtained for between 33 and 36 days, depending on the spore traps. When detected, the daily quantities of cDNA, collected from a volume of 14.4 m3, fluctuated between 4.84E+00 and 6.10E+03. Correlation coefficients higher than 0,82 and no significant differences were observed between the quantities of M. graminicola collected by the three spore traps, indicating that, at 1 m above ground level, the distribution of inoculum can be considered as homogenous at the tested field scale. This study confirms that spore traps coupled with real-time PCR could be used to assess the airborne inoculum of M. graminicola and to understand the development of the disease at this scale.