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Food Chemistry
Volume 363, 2021, 130331

Exploring the volatile metabolome of conventional and organic walnut oils by solid-phase microextraction and analysis by GC-MS combined with chemometrics

Natasa P.Kalogiouria, Natalia Manousia, Erwin Rosenbergb

Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece.


It is challenging to establish a correlation between the agronomical practices and the volatile profile of high-value agricultural products. In this study, the volatile metabolome of walnut oils from conventional and organic farming type was explored by HS-SPME-GC-MS. The SPME protocol was optimized after evaluating the effects of extraction time, extraction temperature, and sample mass. The optimum parameters involved the extraction of 0.500 g walnut oil at 40 °C within 60 min. Twenty Greek walnut oils produced with conventional and organic farming were analyzed and 41 volatile compounds were identified. The determined compounds were semi-quantified, and further processed with chemometrics. Agglomerative hierarchical clustering (AHC) and principal component analysis (PCA) were used. A robust classification model was developed using sparse partial least squares–discriminant analysis (sPLS-DA) for the discrimination of walnut oils into conventional and organic, establishing volatile markers that could be used to guarantee the type of farming.

Keywords: Walnut oils, SPME, GC-MS, Organic farming, sPLS-DA, authenticity.

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