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Microbial Metabolism and Disease
2021, Pages 223-241

Tryptamine produced by human microbiome as an inhibitor of microbial and mammalian enzymes and a ligand of receptors

Elena L.Paley

Expert BioMed, Inc., Miami, FL, United States Stop Alzheimers Corp., Miami, FL, United States.

Abstract

Microbial metabolism is involved in human diseases. The diseases can be caused by alterations in the human microbiome that are called dysbiosis. The cytotoxic biogenic amines are produced by the human microbiome and present in food. The biogenic amine tryptamine showing dose-dependent cytotoxicity and neurotoxicity is a metabolite of essential aromatic amino acid tryptophan. Tryptamine is an inhibitor of at least 12 enzymes implicated in vitally important functions including protein biosynthesis, sleep-wake circadian rhythm, acetylcholine hydrolysis, histamine metabolism, and metabolism of drugs and other xenobiotics. For instance, tryptamine is an inhibitor of serotonin N-acetyltransferase (also known as arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase), an enzyme involved in the day/night rhythmic production of melatonin, by modification of serotonin. Therefore, different metabolic pathways of microbial and human cells can be affected by the overproduction of biogenic amines and, especially, the blood–brain barrier-crossing tryptamine in the human microbiome.

Keywords: Acetylcholine hydrolysis, Blood–brain barrier, Histamine metabolism, Human microbiome, Metabolism of drugs, Protein biosynthesis, Sleep-wake circadian rhythm, Xenobiotics.

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