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Microbial Metabolism and Disease
2021, Pages 49-59

Genes encoding mammalian, plant, and microbial aromatic amino acid decarboxylase

Elena L.Paley

Expert BioMed, Inc., Miami, FL, United States Stop Alzheimers Corp., Miami, FL, United States.


To improve the control of biogenic amine-forming microorganisms, it is imperative to comprehend the mechanism by which the biogenic amines are produced. It is important to analyze the metabolic pathways of human microbiome implicated in human diseases to focus on yet unknown steps and find the way to target and manipulate the specific step/s causing pathology. This approach can be called human microbiome metabolic engineering, or by other words, modification of human microbial metabolism. The biogenic amine derived from tryptophan decarboxylation, tryptamine, is cytotoxic for human and microbial cells and can also change the expression of different genes including those implicated in neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, it is important to discuss an enzyme that catalyzes production of tryptamine. In humans, the enzyme aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase (DOPA) catalyzes production of biogenic amines or “trace amines” tryptamine, β-phenylethylamine, and tyramine from aromatic amino acids tryptophan, phenylalanine, and tyrosine, respectively.

Keywords: Aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase (DOPA decarboxylase or AAAD or AADC), Biogenic amine-forming microorganisms, DecarboxylationHuman diseases, Human microbial metabolism“Trace” amines.

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