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Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Vol. 129, 2016, Pages: 49–55

Effects of the microbial secondary metabolite benzothiazole on the nutritional physiology and enzyme activities of Bradysia odoriphaga (Diptera: Sciaridae)

Yunhe Zhao, Chunmei Xu, Qiuhong Wang, Yan Wei, Feng Liu, Shuangyu Xu, Zhengqun Zhang, Wei Mu

College of Plant Protection, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory for Biology of Vegetable Diseases and Insect Pests, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai'an, Shandong 271018, PR China.


Bradysia odoriphaga (Diptera: Sciaridae) is the major pest that damages Chinese chive production. As a volatile compound derived from microbial secondary metabolites, benzothiazole has been determined to possess fumigant activity against B. odoriphaga. However, the mechanism of action of benzothiazole is not well understood. In the present study, fourth-instar larvae of B. odoriphaga were exposed to LC10 and LC30 of benzothiazole. Sublethal concentrations (LC10 and LC30) of benzothiazole significantly reduced the food consumption of the larvae on the second day after treatment (2 DAT). However, there were no significant changes in pupal weight among the different treatments. We also measured the protein, lipid, carbohydrate, and trehalose contents and the digestive enzyme activities of the larvae, and the results suggest that benzothiazole reduced the nutrient accumulation and decreased the digestive enzyme activities of B. odoriphaga. In addition, the activity of glutathione S-transferase was significantly decreased at 6 h after treatment with benzothiazole, whereas general esterase activities were significantly increased at 6 and 24 h after treatment. The results of this study indicate that benzothiazole interferes in the normal food consumption and digestion process by decreasing the activities of digestive enzymes. These results provide valuable information for understanding the toxicity of benzothiazole and for exploring volatile compound for the control of this pest.

Graphical abstract

Keywords: Bradysia odoriphaga; Benzothiazole; Nutritional indices; Enzymes; Detoxification; Volatile organic compounds.

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