Bacterial Enzymes and Multi-enzymatic Systems for Cleaning-up Dyes from the Environment
Sónia Mendes, Maria Paula Robalo, Lígia O. Martins
Instituto de Tecnologia Química e Biológica, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Av. Da República, 2780-157, Oeiras, Portugal.
Synthetic dyes are xenobiotic compounds that are being increasingly used in several industries, with special emphasis in the paper, textile and leather industries. Over 100,000 commercial dyes exist today and more than 7 × 105 tons of dyestuff is produced annually, of which 1–1.5 × 105 tons is released into the wastewaters (Rai et al in Crit Rev Environ Sci Tecnhol 35:219–238, 2005). Among these, azo dyes, characterized by the presence of one or more azo groups (–N=N–), and anthraquinonic dyes represent the largest and most versatile groups.