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LWT
Vol. 89, 2018, Pages: 276-283

Application of different drying techniques to fresh-cut salad waste to obtain food ingredients rich in antioxidants and with high solvent loading capacity

Stella Plazzotta, Sonia Calligaris, Lara Manzocco

Department of Agricultural, Food, Environmental and Animal Sciences, University of Udine, Italy.

Abstract

Wastes from iceberg salad fresh-cut processing were submitted to air-drying, freeze-drying, and supercritical-CO2-drying with or without ethanol as co-solvent. Drying was combined with grinding to obtain flours. Samples were analysed for macro- and micro-appearance, particle size, dietary fibre, polyphenol content, antioxidant activity, water vapour sorption, water and oil holding capacity. Air-drying produced a collapsed brown material allowing a flour rich in fibre (>260 g/kg) and polyphenols (3.05 mg GAE/gdw) with antioxidant activity (6.04 OD-3/min/gdw) to be obtained. Freeze-drying maintained vegetable structure and colour while partly retaining polyphenols (1.23 mg GAE/gdw). Supercritical-CO2-drying with ethanol as co-solvent, produced an expanded material able to entrap huge amounts of water and oil (43.2 and 35.2 g of water and oil for g of dry sample). Air-dried salad waste derivatives could be used as functional food ingredients, while supercritical-CO2-dried ones can be exploited as bulking agents and absorbers of oil spills or edible oils.

Keywords: Drying techniques, Fibre, Polyphenol, Antioxidant activity, Food ingredients.

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