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Methods
Vol. 146, 2018, Pages: 93-106

Advances in enzyme substrate analysis with capillary electrophoresis

Srikanth Gattu, Cassandra L.Crihfield, GraceLu, Lloyd Bwanali, Lindsay M.Veltri, Lisa A.Holland

C. Eugene Bennett Department of Chemistry, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506, United States.

Abstract

Capillary electrophoresis provides a rapid, cost-effective platform for enzyme and substrate characterization. The high resolution achievable by capillary electrophoresis enables the analysis of substrates and products that are indistinguishable by spectroscopic techniques alone, while the small volume requirement enables analysis of enzymes or substrates in limited supply. Furthermore, the compatibility of capillary electrophoresis with various detectors makes it suitable for KM determinations ranging from nanomolar to millimolar concentrations. Capillary electrophoresis fundamentals are discussed with an emphasis on the separation mechanisms relevant to evaluate sets of substrate and product that are charged, neutral, and even chiral. The basic principles of Michaelis-Menten determinations are reviewed and the process of translating capillary electrophoresis electropherograms into a Michaelis-Menten curve is outlined. The conditions that must be optimized in order to couple off-line and on-line enzyme reactions with capillary electrophoresis separations, such as incubation time, buffer pH and ionic strength, and temperature, are examined to provide insight into how the techniques can be best utilized. The application of capillary electrophoresis to quantify enzyme inhibition, in the form of KI or IC50 is detailed. The concept and implementation of the immobilized enzyme reactor is described as a means to increase enzyme stability and reusability, as well as a powerful tool for screening enzyme substrates and inhibitors. Emerging techniques focused on applying capillary electrophoresis as a rapid assay to obtain structural identification or sequence information about a substrate and in-line digestions of peptides and proteins coupled to mass spectrometry analyses are highlighted.

Keywords: Capillary electrophoresis, Enzyme, Inhibitor, Michaelis-Menten constant.

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