Microbial Biotechnology: A Promising Implement for Sustainable Agriculture
Department of Biochemistry, University of Allahabad, Allahabad, India.
Microbial biotechnology is a well-established branch of biotechnology, which include the application of microorganisms with emerging modern techniques of biotechnology for the development of sustainable agriculture. Microbial biotechnology deals with the manipulation through genetic engineering of living organisms or their components to produce valuable products for various applications. Classical agriculture farming equipment and practices are reaching their limits of effectiveness in increasing agricultural productivity. The chemical fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides, and other inputs have increased agricultural production, but simultaneously, cause adverse effects on soil productivity and environmental quality. The broad application of microbes in sustainable agriculture is due to the genetic dependency of plants on the beneficial functions provided by symbiotic cohabitants. Therefore, microbial biotechnology and its applications in development of sustainable agriculture and environmental health are attracting the attention of microbiologists and biotechnologists. India's large population is placing more pressure on natural resources like soil and water, and affecting our ability to produce sufficient food, feed, and fiber. Recently developed biotechnologies can provide appropriate new tools to find out the solutions of different specific problems of sustainable agriculture (Singh and Gupta, 2018). The aim of this study was to conclude the diversified useful applications of microbial biotechnology for the development of sustainable agriculture using different tools and techniques such as biofertilizers, biopesticides, and value additions in crops.
Keywords: Microorganisms, Biofertilizer, Biopesticide, Sustainable agriculture.