In vitro engineering of microbial enzymes with multifarious applications: Prospects and perspectives
Swati Joshi, Tulasi Satyanarayana
Department of Microbiology, University of Delhi South Campus, Benito Juarez Road, New Delhi 110 021, India.
The discovery of a novel enzyme from a microbial source takes anywhere between months to years, and therefore, there has been an immense interest in modifying the existing microbial enzymes to suit the present day needs of the industry. The redesigning of industrially useful enzymes for improving their performance has become a challenge because bioinformatics databases have been revealing new facts on a day-to-day basis. Modification of the existing enzymes has become a trend for fine tuning of biocatalysts in the biotech industry. Hydrolases are employed in pharmaceutical, biofuel, detergent, food and feed industries that significantly contribute to the global annual revenue, and therefore, the emphasis has been on engineering them. Although a large data is accumulating on making alterations in microbial enzymes, there is a lack of definite information on redesigning industrial enzymes. This review focuses on the recent developments in improving the characteristics of various biotechnologically important enzymes.
Keywords: Site directed mutagenesis; Protein engineering; In vitro evolution; Microbial enzymes; Industrial biotechnology.