Emerging priorities for microbial metagenome research
Rangasamy Kirubakarana, K.N.ArulJothib,c, Sundaravadivel Revathid, Nowsheen Shameeme, Javid A.Parrayf
Department of Biotechnology, Vysya College, Salem, Tamil Nadu, India.
Overwhelming anthropogenic activities lead to deterioration of natural resources and the environment. The microorganisms are considered desirable, due to their suitability for easy genetic manipulation and handling. With the aid of modern biotechnological techniques, the culturable microorganisms have been widely exploited for the benefit of mankind. Metagenomics, a powerful tool to access the abundant biodiversity of the environmental samples including the unculturable microbes, to determine microbial diversity and population structure, their ecological roles and expose novel genes of interest. This review focuses on the microbial adaptations to the adverse environmental conditions, metagenomic techniques employed towards microbial biotechnology. Metagenomic approach helps to understand microbial ecology and to identify useful microbial derivatives like antibiotics, toxins, and enzymes with diverse and enhanced function. It also summarizes the application of metagenomics in clinical diagnosis, improving microbial ecology, therapeutics, xenobiotic degradation and impact on agricultural crops.
Keywords: Metagenome, Biotechnological application, Environment, Xenobiotics, Bioremediation.