Biotechnological and microbial standpoint cahoot in bioremediation
Pankaj Kumar, Bhim Jyoti, Ajay Kumar, Arunima Paliwal
VCSG UUHF CoF, Ranichauri, Tehri Garhwal, India.
The exploitation of natural resources and high demand for food, energy, and other requirements are increasing due to the explosive rise in the global population. Only around 10% of all waste is degradable safely. Bioremediation is the biological process of decontamination of contaminated environments. Biotechnological approaches for bioremediation are performed through biosorption, phytostabilization, hyperaccumulation, dendroremediation, biostimulation, rhizoremediation, mycoremediation, cyanoremediation, genoremediation, biodegradation, bioaccumulation, and metabolism (biotransformation, detoxification, etc.). There are several techniques in remediation, including bioaugmentation, biofilters, bioreactors, biostimulation, bioventing, composting, and biopiling. Various microorganisms such as corynebacteria, mycobacteria, pseudomonads, yeasts (nontoxic bioemulsifiers that eliminate oil slicks and petroleum pollutions), fungi, and aerobic bacteria (degrade dyes) are used in the processes. Bacteria Geobacter metallireducens (reduces radioactive uranium from ground water), fungi (Acremonium, Aureobasidium, Cunninghamella, Graphium, Trichoderma, etc.), and yeast (Candida, Rhodotorula, Saccharomyces, and Sporobolomyces) help in bioremediation. Therefore this biotechnological approach and microbes will have a greater share in the bioremediation of pollutants and wastes.
Keywords: Bioremediation, biotechnological approach, aerobic bacteria, fungi, yeast.