Microbe-Mediated Mitigation of Plant Stress
M. Nadeem Akhtar, Rekha Balodi, Abhijeet Ghatak PhD
Claiming of reduced crop production is fundamentally addressed to types of stresses i.e., abiotic and biotic. Stresses trigger the synthesis of reactive oxygen species causing toxicity, ultimately resulting in oxidative damage at the tissue or cellular level. A wide range of pathogens (harmful microbes) pose a quality threat on crop yield, nutrition, and organoleptic degradation. Additionally, a shortened shelf life of the crop commodity is also caused by the metabolic activity of the pathogen. To cope with the stresses, through an evolutionary process, the crop plants have developed a complex of the mechanism involving deviation in genetic, cellular, metabolic, and physiological phases. Metabolites produced during the plant-microbe interaction act as signals that are recognized by the plants and activate the defense mechanism in response to stress conditions. In this connection, the plant system is also supported by the beneficial microbiome for nutrient uptake, providing resistance, and tolerating the abiotic stresses. Plant-associated microbiomes not only are involved in stress tolerance but also regulate plant growth and development. The plants and their microbiome are interacted with each other through different metabolic cross-talk and then form stress-tolerant strategies. The processes of plant-microbe interactions can be understood through molecular, physiological, and biochemical events. This chapter will give an impression about a few of the mechanisms by which plants defend themselves against various abiotic and biotic stresses in specific to secondary metabolites produced by plant microbiome.
Keywords: Crop improvement; Fungi; Microbiome; PGPRs; Reactive oxygen species.