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Phytohormones: A Window to Metabolism, Signaling and Biotechnological Applications
2014; Pages: 221 263


Jasmonates in Plant Growth and Stress Responses

Claus Wasternack

Department of Molecular Signal Processing, Leibniz Institute of Plant Biochemistry, 06120, Halle (Saale), Weinberg 3, Germany

Abstract

Jasmonates are lipid-derived compounds which are signals in plant stress responses and development. They are synthesized in chloroplasts and peroxisomes. An endogenous rise occurs upon environmental stimuli or in distinct stages of development such as that of anthers and trichomes or in root growth. Hydroxylation, carboxylation, glucosylation, sulfation, methylation, or conjugation of jasmonic acid (JA) leads to numerous metabolites. Many of them are at least partially biologically inactive. The most bioactive JA is the (+)-7-iso-JA–isoleucine conjugate. Its perception takes place by the SCFCOI1-JAZ-co-receptor complex. At elevated levels of JAs, negative regulators such as JAZ, or JAV are subjected to proteasomal degradation, thereby allowing positively acting transcription factors of the MYC or MYB family to switch on JA-induced gene expression. In case of JAM negative regulation takes place by anatagonism to MYC2. JA and COI1 are dominant signals in gene expression after wounding or in response to necrotrophic pathogens. Cross-talk to salicylic acid, ethylene, auxin, and other hormones occurs. Growth is inhibited by JA, thereby counteracting the growth stimulation by gibberellic acid. Senescence, trichome formation, arbuscular mycorrhiza, and formation of many secondary metabolites are induced by jasmonates. Effects in cold acclimation; in intercropping; during response to herbivores, nematodes, or necrotrophic pathogens; in pre- and post-harvest; in crop quality control; and in biosynthesis of secondary compounds led to biotechnological and agricultural applications.

Keywords: Jasmonates, Oxylipins, Jasmonate biosynthesis, Jasmonate metabolites, Jasmonate perception, Jasmonate signaling, Cross-talk, Biotic stress, Abiotic stress, Root development, Flower development, Applied aspects..


 
 
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