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Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology
Vol. 166, 2017, Pages: 272–284

A review on biogenic synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles using plant extracts and microbes: A prospect towards green chemistry

Shakeel Ahmed, Annu, Saif Ali Chaudhry, Saiqa Ikram

Bio/Polymers Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110025, India.


Nanotechnology is emerging as an important area of research with its tremendous applications in all fields of science, engineering, medicine, pharmacy, etc. It involves the materials and their applications having one dimension in the range of 1–100 nm. Generally, various techniques are used for syntheses of nanoparticles (NPs) viz. laser ablation, chemical reduction, milling, sputtering, etc. These conventional techniques e.g. chemical reduction method, in which various hazardous chemicals are used for the synthesis of NPs later become liable for innumerable health risks due to their toxicity and endangering serious concerns for environment, while other approaches are expensive, need high energy for the synthesis of NPs. However, biogenic synthesis method to produce NPs is eco-friendly and free of chemical contaminants for biological applications where purity is of concerns. In biological method, different biological entities such as extract, enzymes or proteins of a natural product are used to reduce and stabilised formation of NPs. The nature of these biological entities also influence the structure, shape, size and morphology of synthesized NPs. In this review, biogenic synthesis of zinc oxide (ZnO) NPs, procedures of syntheses, mechanism of formation and their various applications have been discussed. Various entities such as proteins, enzymes, phytochemicals, etc. available in the natural reductants are responsible for synthesis of ZnO NPs.

Graphical Abstract

Keywords: Plant extract; Microbes; ZnO; NPs; Green synthesis; Eco-friendly.

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