How fermentation by lactic acid bacteria can address safety issues in legumes food products?
HélèneLicandroa,b, Phu Ha Hoa,c,e, Thi Kim Chi Nguyena,b,Awanwee Petchkongkaewa,d, Hai Van Nguyena,c,e, Son Chu-Kya,c,e,Thi Viet Anh Nguyena,f, Da Lorna,b,g, Yves Wachéabd
Tropical Fermentation Network, Viet Nam
Fermented Asian foods have recently gained popularity, crossing from Asian communities to mainstream markets, in many western countries. However, less attention has been paid to the safety of these foods. In South-East Asia, fermented products are still produced following traditional methods. Therefore, consumers are not confident in their microbial safety. The challenges awaiting fermentation in South-East Asia are thus to improve safety and quality in a sustainable system producing tasty and typical fermented products. A possible solution could be the use of starter cultures able to increase the safety of food stuffs. Starters could also help to standardize the production process and reduce ripening times. The current review addresses the role of lactic acid bacteria on the microbiological and chemical safety of Asian legume based fermented products. In particular, their role in the reduction of anti nutritional compounds (e.g. phytates) and protein allergenicity is discussed. Moreover, starters can inihibit the development of amino acid-decarboxylating microbes preventing the accumulation of biogenic amines, they can also be useful to reduce the accumulation of mycotoxins and inhibit pathogens’ development. Finally, their role in the degradation of pesticides is analyzed.
Keywords: Legumes, Lactic acid bacteria, Phytates, Biogenic amines, Mycotoxins, Food safety