Film formation and deposition methods of edible coating on food products: A review
Rajat Suhaga, NishantKumara, Anka Trajkovska Petkoskab, Ashutosh Upadhyaya
National Institute of Food Technology Entrepreneurship and Management Kundli, Sonipat, Haryana 131028, India
The greatest challenge encountered by the food manufacturer is the loss of quality of food products during storage, which eventually adds to the waste. Edible packaging is known as a potential alternative to protecting food quality and improving shelf life by delaying microbial spoilage and providing moisture and gas barrier properties. Developments in edible packaging and technology have shown promising results in enhancing the shelf life of food products. In 2016, the edible packaging market was valued at $697 million and by 2023 is expected to hit $1097 million growing at a compound annual growth rate (CGAR) of 6.81% from 2017 to 2023 at global level. In global edible packaging markets specific industries including MonoSol LLC, Tate & Lyle Plc, WikiCell Designs Inc., JRF Technology LLC, Safetraces, Inc., BluWrap, Skipping Rocks Lab, Tipa Corp., Watson Inc., and Devro plc have played a key role. Edible packaging can be applied in two forms: (i) edible coating applied directly on the food product or (ii) preformed film wrapped around the food product. The aim of this study is to review different methods of film formation and edible coating depositions. Edible films can be produced using two methods, wet (casting) and dry (extrusion) processes; and methods such as dipping, spraying, fluidized-bed, and panning are used for deposition of edible coatings on the surface of food product. Casting and dipping methods for film formation and coating deposition, respectively, are easy to use and are preferred methods on a lab scale; whereas extrusion and spraying are preferred methods for film formation and coating deposition, respectively, on a commercial scale. This work can help researchers and industries to select an efficient and cost-effective method for the development of edible film/coating for specific application. Further study and evaluation of practical applications of methods of edible packaging should be carried out within the main purpose of keeping food safe with acceptable quality for extended period of time.
Keywords: Edible coating/film, Deposition of edible coating, Film formation, Food quality and shelf life, Food preservation