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TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry
Vol. 73, 2015, Pages: 19–38

Miniaturized solid-phase extraction techniques

Justyna Plotka-Wasylka, Natalia Szczepanska, Miguel de la Guardia, Jacek Namiesnik

Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Gdańsk University of Technology, 11/12 Narutowicza Street, Gdańsk 80-233, Poland.


More than 80% of analysis time is spent on sample collection and sample preparation, so sample preparation is a critical part of the analytical process. Traditionally, liquid-liquid extraction was developed and employed to screen for general unknowns. However, solid-phase extraction (SPE) is becoming highly popular as an alternative, due to its simplicity and economy in terms of time and solvent. This review summarizes the current state of the art and the future prospects for green analytical chemistry with special emphasis on environment-friendly sample-preparation techniques based on the solid phase. We discuss in detail miniaturized SPE techniques, based on the most relevant, most representative and most recent scientific references.

Keywords: Dispersive solid-phase extraction; Green analytical chemistry; Immunoaffinity solid-phase extraction; Magnetic solid-phase extraction; Microextraction in a packed syringe; Miniaturized solid-phase extraction; Molecularly-imprinted solid-phase extraction; Solid-phase extraction; Solid-phase microextraction; Stir-bar sorptive extraction.

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