An insight into the production strategies and applications of the ligninolytic enzyme laccase from bacteria and fungi
Rinku Debnath, Tanima Saha
Department of Molecular Biology & Biotechnology, University of Kalyani, West Bengal, 741235, India.
The ligninolytic multi-copper enzyme laccase, is widely produced by bacteria and fungi. It has been extensively used in industries for its versatile applications due to its catalytic properties of oxidation of both phenolic and non-phenolic lignin based compounds. For this purpose, the enzyme needs to be produced in large quantities. Though there have been multiple reviews focused on the biochemical aspects, molecular properties and wide applications of laccases, none of them have elaborately discussed on their production, which is the prerequisite for its use. Through this review a novel attempt has been made to discuss the production strategies of laccases from mesophilic and extremophilic microorganisms using different media ingredients, agro-industrial wastes and culture conditions. These enzymes from various sources possess unique properties, yet sharing some common structural and catalytic features which can be improved using enzyme immobilization techniques. The review also outlines various applications of laccases in different industries including food, textile, paper and pulp. The enzyme has also been used for green synthesis of nanoparticles. Further, its use in biosensors and polymer syntheses have also been elaborated.
Keywords: Laccase, Lignocelluloses, Agro-industrial wastes, Ligninolytic enzyme.