Cadmium-tolerant bacteria reduce the uptake of cadmium in rice: Potential for microbial bioremediation
Surasak Siripornadulsil, Wilailak Siripornadulsil
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand.
We selected 24 bacterial isolates that could tolerate up to 2500 µM CdCl2 from the soil of rice fields downstream from a zinc-mineralized area contaminated with a high level of cadmium (Cd). In the presence of 500 µM CdCl2, all isolates grew slower and with a prolonged lag-phase compared to in the absence of Cd. Cd-binding capacity was high and ranged from 6.38 to 9.38 log[Cd(atom)]/cell. The stability of Cd complexes in bacteria was affected by 1 mM EDTA. In 500 µM CdCl2, all isolates produced 0.7 to 4.8-fold more inorganic sulfide and 0.6 to 2.2-fold more thio-rich compounds containing SH groups. Out of 24 Cd-tolerant bacterial isolates, KKU2500-3, -8, -9 and -20 were able to promote the growth of Thai jasmine rice (Kao Hom Mali 105) seedlings in the presence of 200 µM CdCl2, and KKU2500-3 produced the highest numbers of fibrous root. Interestingly, these 4 isolates increased Cd tolerance and decreased the accumulation of Cd in rice by 61, 9, 6, and 17% when grown in the presence of 200 µM CdCl2. Of the 4 isolates, KKU2500-3 produced more inorganic sulfide when grown in CdCl2 at 500–2000 µM. XANES analyses indicated that this isolate precipitated a detectable amount of cadmium sulfide (CdS) when grown in 500 µM CdCl2. Thus, the isolate KKU2500-3 could possibly transform toxic, soluble CdCl2 into non-toxic, insoluble CdS. These 4Cd-tolerant bacterial isolates were identified via 16S rDNA sequencing and classified as Cupriavidus taiwanensisKKU2500-3 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa KKU2500-8, -9, and -20