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Journal of Great Lakes Research

Registration and application of sea lamprey pheromones for sea lamprey control in the United States and Canada

Kim Fredricksa, Nicholas Johnsonb, Terrance Huberta, Mike Siefkesc

U.S. Geological Survey, Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center, 2630 Fanta Reed Road, La Crosse, WI 54603, USA.


Since the identification of 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol as a lampricide in the 1950s, control of sea lamprey populations in the Great Lakes has largely relied on lampricides, barriers, and traps. Lampricide treatments target larval lampreys in tributaries of the Great Lakes. The Great Lakes Fishery Commission oversees sea lamprey control efforts and has invested in technologies that may target other life stages to provide a more integrated approach to sea lamprey control. One technology under development is the use of pheromones to alter behavior of spawning adults. Pheromones are considered biopesticides, which are substances made from naturally occurring products, or derived from living organisms, or a microorganism, that controls pests. We provide a review of sea lamprey management that led to the development of pheromone registration. We also describe the process used to register the first vertebrate pheromone, 3-ketopetromyzonal-24-sulfate (3kPZS) in the United States and Canada and its potential uses in sea lamprey control as a supplemental tool to chemical lampricides.

Keywords: Pesticide registration, 3-ketopetromyzonal-24-sulfate (3kPZS), Biopesticides, Invasive species, Sea lamprey control.

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