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Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology

Proteomics-based identification of midgut proteins correlated with Cry1Ac resistance in Plutella xylostella (L.)

Jixing Xia, Zhaojiang Guo, Zezhong Yang, Xun Zhu, Shi Kang, Xin Yang, Fengshan Yang, Qingjun Wu, Shaoli Wang, Wen Xie, Weijun Xu, Youjun Zhang

Department of Plant Protection, Institute of Vegetables and Flowers, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, 100081, China.


The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), is a worldwide pest of cruciferous crops and can rapidly develop resistance to many chemical insecticides. Although insecticidal crystal proteins (i.e., Cry and Cyt toxins) derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been useful alternatives to chemical insecticides for the control of P. xylostella, resistance to Bt in field populations of P. xylostella has already been reported. A better understanding of the resistance mechanisms to Bt should be valuable in delaying resistance development. In this study, the mechanisms underlying P. xylostellaresistance to Bt Cry1Ac toxin were investigated using two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and ligand blotting for the first time. Comparative analyses of the constitutive expression of midgut proteins in Cry1Ac-susceptible and -resistant P. xylostella larvae revealed 31 differentially expressed proteins, 21 of which were identified by mass spectrometry. Of these identified proteins, the following fell into diverse eukaryotic orthologous group (KOG) subcategories may be involved in Cry1Ac resistance in P. xylostella: ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter subfamily G member 4 (ABCG4), trypsin, heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), vacuolar H+-ATPase, actin, glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor attachment 1 protein (GAA1) and solute carrier family 30 member 1 (SLC30A1). Additionally, ligand blotting identified the following midgut proteins as Cry1Ac-binding proteins in Cry1Ac-susceptible P. xylostella larvae: ABC transporter subfamily C member 1 (ABCC1), solute carrier family 36 member 1 (SLC36A1), NADH dehydrogenase iron–sulfur protein 3 (NDUFS3), prohibitin and Rap1 GTPase-activating protein 1. Collectively, these proteomic results increase our understanding of the molecular resistance mechanisms to Bt Cry1Ac toxin in P. xylostellaand also demonstrate that resistance to Bt Cry1Ac toxin is complex and multifaceted.

Graphical abstract

Keywords: Plutella xylostella; Bacillus thuringiensis; Cry1Ac resistance; 2D-DIGE; Ligand blotting.

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