Mosquitocidal activity of two Bacillus bacterial endotoxins combined with plant oils and conventional insecticides
Sameeh A. Mansour, Mohamed S. Foda, Amina R. Aly
Environmental Toxicology Research Unit (ETRU), Pesticide Chemistry Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt.
The full whole culture (FWC), containing parasporal protein toxins of Bacillus thuringiensis israelinsis (Bti) and Bacillus sphaericus 2362 (Bs), either singly or in combination with plant oils and commercial insecticides, was tested against larval and adult stages of Culex pipiens mosquitoes under controlled laboratory conditions. In terms of LC50 values recorded after 24, 48, 72 and 96 h, the bacterial toxins showed high potency towards both larvae and adults of mosquitoes in a dose-dependent manner. Generally, the Bti toxin seemed to be more potent than the Bs toxin. For example, the Bti toxin showed a 24 h LC50 of 8.2 ppm against mosquito larvae compared to 13.6 ppm for the Bs toxin. In the adult bioassay, the obtained 24 h LC50 values were 0.064 and 0.085 mg/cm2, respectively for the two bacterial toxins. The bacterial toxins mixed with plant oils or insecticides at equitoxic doses (e.g., LC25 values) mostly showed potentiation effects, either against larvae or adults of the tested insect. Among a total of 14 paired mixtures, only the joint action estimated for the mixture of malathion + Bti or Bs was accounted as additively. Combining Bti or Bs endotoxins at LC0 with different plant oils and insecticides at LC50 concentration levels each, has resulted in considerable synergism against either larvae or adults. In the case of larval bioassays, the maximum synergistic factor (SF) obtained (ca. 2.0) was entitled to the mixture of Bti + spinosad. In the adult bioassays, the mixtures containing Curcuma longa or Melia azedarach oil extracts with Bti or Bs toxins achieved a SF accounted to 2.0. The results of the present study may be considered as an additional contribution to the area of joint toxicity of biocidal agents combining bacterial toxins, plant oils and traditional insecticides. The reached findings may encourage future research to elucidate its performance under practical field conditions.