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Microbial Inoculants in Sustainable Agricultural Productivity
Vol. 1, 2016, Pages: 161-179

Biopesticides: An Eco-Friendly Approach for the Control of Soilborne Pathogens in Peanut

Javier A. Andrés, Nicolás A. Pastor, Mauricio Ganuza, Marisa Rovera, María Marta Reynoso, Adriana Torres

Laboratorio de Microbiología Agrícola, Facultad de Agronomía y Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional de Río Cuarto, Campus Universitario, X5804BYA, Río Cuarto, Córdoba, Argentina.

Abstract

The peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is a widespread oilseed crop of great agricultural significance. Argentina is one of the major peanut producers in the world, and about 90 % of its production takes place in the province of Córdoba. During the last 20 years, peanut production has not only been increasing in yield but also in the quality of the harvested product because consumers tend to require high-quality products. Therefore, research and dissemination of technologies constitute essential elements for growing peanuts.

Peanut is susceptible to several diseases which are caused by the confluence of a susceptible cultivar, a pathogen (fungus, bacteria, or virus), and a favorable environment. Soilborne fungal diseases of peanut are spreading throughout Argentina, causing such losses that they are being considered as one of the most important factors in the decrease of peanut yield. Fungicides are the main tool for controlling such diseases, but their use has been shown to bring important ecological adverse consequences for human health and the natural balance of the soil microflora. An alternative disease management option is biological control. It consists mainly in using microorganisms to control harmful microorganisms that cause plant diseases without disturbing the ecological balance. Several scientists around the world have described different Pseudomonas and Trichoderma strains that are able to significantly control a number of fungal diseases. Here, we review the main researches conducted using these organisms as well as the mechanisms involved in their biocontrol activity. We hope that this work will contribute to future research programs that aim to promote strains of Pseudomonas and/or Trichoderma as potential biopesticides for biological control of many diseases of agricultural relevance.

Keywords: Biopesticides, Arachis hypogaea, Trichoderma, Pseudomonas, Soilborne pathogen.

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