Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A toxin-binding glycoconjugates present on the brush border membrane and in the peritrophic membrane of the Douglas-fir tussock moth are peritrophins
Algimantas P. Valaitis, John D. Podgwaite
USDA Forest Service, Northern Research Station, 359 Main Road, Delaware, Ohio 43015.
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry1A toxin-binding sites in the Douglas fir tussock moth (DFTM) larval gut were localized using immunofluorescence microscopy. Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac all bound strongly to the DFTM peritrophic membrane (PM); weaker binding of the Cry1A toxins was observed along the apical brush border of the midgut epithelium. Comparative analysis of the Cry1A toxin-binding molecules in the PM and brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) showed that a similar toxin-binding complex was present in both. The Cry1A toxin-binding substance, a broad band with an apparent size of 180 kDa, consisted of a closely spaced doublet. The doublet was present in peritrophins, proteins tightly bound to the PM. Lectin binding studies of the PM and BBMV toxin-binding components revealed that they are glyconjugates with terminal α-GalNAc residues comprised exclusively of O-linked oligosaccharides in their glycan structures. Mild periodate oxidation, release of O-linked glycans by β-elimination, and enzymatic removal of terminal α-linked GalNAc residues with N-acetyl-α-D-galactosaminidase digestion abolished Cry1A toxin-binding to the PM and BBMV components. These data provide strong evidence that O-linked glycans are the target structures on the toxin-binding glycoconjugates for the Cry1A class of insecticidal proteins in DFTM larvae.