Assessment of microbial larvicide spraying with Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis, for the prevention of malaria
D. Kinde-Gazard, T. Baglo
Faculté des sciences de la santé de l’université d’Abomey-Calavi 03, BP 1428 Cotonou, Benin.
The aim of this study was to assess the contribution of microbial larvicide spraying, Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis, as prevention strategy against malaria.
An experimental study consisted in spraying B. thuringiensis israelensis in a district during 1 year has been conducted. Another district (control) was not sprayed. Eight hundred and two children were evaluated, thick drop and swab examination was performed for those presenting with fever. The larval density was calculated in their habitats as well as larvicide remanence. Capture of mosquitoes with human bait allowed determining human exposure to bites at night, and identifying anopheles after dissection.
The incidence of pediatric malaria was 13.8% in the sprayed district and 31.4% in the control district. The parasitic load ranged from 2000 to 42,000 parasites/μL in the sprayed district and 2000 to 576,000 parasites/μL in the control district. Plasmodium falciparum was the most frequent (97.8%) plasmodial species. In the control district, at least 20 larvae by liter of water were counted; anopheles larvae were found in 11 larval habitats out of 15 (73.33%). The human exposure to anopheles bites at night was 14.25 in the sprayed district and 33.13 in the control district. The remanence of B. thuringiensis israelensis was estimated at 9 days in the sprayed district.
The larvicide B. thuringiensis israelensis may be used in vector control strategy for the prevention of malaria.