On the capacity of ozonation to remove antimicrobial compounds, resistant bacteria and toxicity from urban wastewater effluents
Veronika Farkasová, Sayed Ali Drweesh, Andrea Lüköová, Danica Sabolová, Ivana D. Radojevic, Ljiljana R. Comic, Sava M. Vasic, Helena Paulíková, Stanislav Fecko, Tatiana Balaková, Mária Vilková, Ján Imrich, Ivan Potocnák
Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, P. J. Šafárik University, Moyzesova 11, 041 54 Košice, Slovakia.
Starting from well-defined NH2(CH3)2[PdCl2(XQ)] complexes, coordination compounds of general formula Cat[PdCl2(XQ)] have been prepared by cationic exchange of NH2(CH3)2+ and Cat cations, where XQ are biologically active halogen derivatives of quinolin-8-ol (5-chloro-7-iodo-quinolin-8-ol (CQ), 5,7-dibromo-quinolin-8-ol (dBrQ) and 5,7-dichloro-quinolin-8-ol (dClQ)) and Cat is K+ or Cs+. The cation exchange of all prepared complexes, K[PdCl2(CQ)] (1), K[PdCl2(dClQ)] (2), K[PdCl2(dBrQ)] (3), Cs[PdCl2(CQ)] (4), Cs[PdCl2(dClQ)] (5) and Cs[PdCl2(dBrQ)] (6) was approved using IR spectroscopy, their structures in DMSO solution were elucidated by one- and two-dimensional NMR experiments, whereas their stability in solution was verified by UV–VIS spectroscopy. Interaction of complexes to ctDNA was investigated using UV–VIS and fluorescence emission spectroscopy. The minimum inhibitory concentration and the minimum microbicidal concentration values were detected against 15 bacterial strains and 4 yeast strains to examine the antimicrobial activity for the complexes. The in vitro antitumor properties of the complexes were studied by testing the complexes on leukemic cell line L1210, ovarian cancer cell line A2780 and non-cancerous cell line HEK293. The majority of the prepared compounds exhibited moderate antimicrobial and very high cytotoxic activity.
Keywords: Quinolin-8-ol derivatives; Pd(II) complexes; Antimicrobial; Antitumor; DNA binding.