Comprehensive analysis of venom from the scorpion Centruroides tecomanus reveals compounds with antimicrobial, cytotoxic, and insecticidal activities
L.L. Valdez-Velazquéz, M.T. Romero-Gutierrez, I. Delgado-Enciso, O. Dobrovinskaya, V. Melnikov, V. Quintero-Hernández, S.G. Ceballos-Magaña, M.A. Gaitan-Hinojosa, F.I. Coronas, A.M. Puebla-Perez, F. Zamudio, I. De la Cruz-García, O.F. Vázquez-Vuelvas, A.D. Soriano-Hernandez, L.D. Possani
Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad de Colima, Kilometro 9 Carretera Colima-Coquimatlan, Código Postal 28400, Coquimatlan, Colima, Mexico.
Centruroides tecomanus is a medically important scorpion of the state of Colima (Mexico). This communication reports the identification of venom components of this scorpion with biological activity over insects/crickets (Acheta domestica), crustaceans/fresh water shrimps (Cambarellus montezumae), and mammalians/mice (Mus musculus, strain CD1). It also describes the pharmacological effects on cell lines in culture (L5178Y cells, HeLa cells, HuTu cells and Jurkat E6-1 cells), as well as on several types of bacteria (see below). The soluble venom of this scorpion was fractionated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and collected separately in twelve independent fractions collected over 60 min run (5 min time apart each other). The HPLC components of fraction VII were lethal to all three species used for assay. The IVth fraction had a toxic effect on freshwater shrimps. In this species, fractions VI, VII and VIII were all lethal. For crickets, fractions V and VI were toxic and fraction VII was lethal. In mouse, the lethal components were found in fraction VII, whereas fraction VIII was toxic, but not lethal, at the doses assayed. The molecular weight of peptides from the various group of fractions were identified by mass spectrometry determination. Components lethal to mice showed molecular weights from 7013 to 7487 Da. Two peptides were obtained in homogeneous form and shown to be lethal to the three species of animal used for assay. The soluble venom tested on L5178Y cell line survival was shown to be cytotoxic, at 10–100 μg/mL concentration, when compared to control murine splenocytes (p = 0.007). The soluble venom applied to Hela, Hutu and Jurkat cell lines did not show cytotoxic effects at these concentrations. On the contrary, it seems to have a proliferative effect. However the HPLC fractions I, III, VI and XII do have a cytotoxic effect on Jurkat E06-1 cells in culture at 200 μg/mL concentration. The antimicrobial activity of the venom fractions on Staphylococcus aureus (gram-positive), Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa y Salmonella spp (gram-negative) was measured, using the liquid inhibition growth system. The four strains of bacteria used were susceptible to fractions III and IV, affecting all four bacterial strains at concentrations below 5 μg/mL.
Keywords: Antimicrobial activity; Cancer cell; Scorpion venom; Toxin.